Conduct Disorder

  • By Willie Trytsman
  • 23 May, 2017
Conduct Disorder
Conduct Disorder
The term Conduct Disorder is the diagnostic categorisation used to refer to children whom presents with a pervasive and persistent pattern of behaviours such as aggression, destruction, deceitfulness and the violation of rules, which are problematic. These children diagnosed with Conduct Disorder experiences higher levels of distress and impairment in all developmental areas as opposed to children whom are diagnosed with other mental health disorders. The early diagnoses of conduct disorder is vital as it can be an indication that the individual will engage in criminal behaviours and be socially maladjusted by the time they become adults, it is also one of the most common reasons for referring children and adolescents for psychological and psychiatric help. (Hughes, Crothers, & Jimerson, 2008)

Conduct Disorder falls under the category of disorders which are usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence in the DSM-IV. The diagnostic criteria, or symptoms, of conduct disorder according to the DSM-IV is the repetitive and persistent occurrence of behaviour which violates the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate social rules or norms. The said behaviours can be classified as aggressive conduct that can cause or threaten the physical integrity of other humans or animals, non-aggressive behaviour but which can cause damage or loss to property, behaviours which are deceitful or which involves stealing and behaviour which seriously violates rules. In order to make the diagnosis of conduct disorder all of the above mentioned behaviours need to be presented during last year with at least one being present the last six months and the disturbance in behaviour cause clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 1994)

The treating of conduct disorder is a very complex matter as there are more than five hundred and fifty different types of treatment utilised in conduct disorder interventions in children and adolescents. Various approaches to the treating of conduct disorder has been found to be ineffective. The treatments found to be ineffective includes variations of psychodynamic therapies, play therapy as well as relationship-based treatment approaches and group therapy as in hospital and residential settings. The reality is that the treatments which are empirically supported, such as more comprehensive treatments, are the least likely to be utilised and are also generally unavailable. ( www.fordham.edu )

Treatment Approaches

Parent Management Training

In this approach the parents of the affected child is in consultation with the therapist. In this consultation setting the parents disclose all the problem behaviours observed and identified. Specific problem behaviours, starting with the behaviours perceived as being the easiest to change, are made the targets of change. This treatment approach covers social learning principles and makes all the key role players in the child’s life part of the therapy setting as even the teacher is incorporated as she along with the parents provide feedback with regard to the progress made in the changing of problem behaviours. Parent management training is based on the presumption that maladaptive parenting is the primary cause of conduct disorder and therefore parents are taught to reinforce positive behaviours and to coerce negative behaviours. This approach to treating conduct disorder is very effective and is supported empirically by the most rigorous studies and many children are often even normalized as a results of this approach to treatment. ( www.fordham.edu ) (Conduct Disorders & Antisocial Behaviour in Children and Young People: Recognition, Intervention and Management, 2012)

Multisystemic Therapy

The multisystemic therapy approach to training conduct disorder is in actual fact a more elaborate form of parent management training as it includes other systems such as the extended family, school and peers which are assumed to be also responsible for the reinforcement of negative behaviour. The two key systems which this approach focuses on are the family and peer systems. The family is taught various techniques to improve the communication and cohesion whereas the parents are taught how to appropriately and effectively discipline their children. What is sought through the peer system is to involve the child with conduct disorder with pro-social peers who will make this child part of foster
discipline and good conduct.

Evidence was gathered from various studies which showed that this approach at helping is very effective even more than hospitalisation. Another positive is the fact that it is also cost effective. From follow up studies as much as five years after therapy shows lower arrest rates. ( www.fordham.edu ) (Conduct Disorders & Antisocial Behaviour in Children and Young People: Recognition, Intervention and Management, 2012)

Problem Solving and Anger Management Skills Training

These are cognitive approaches which aims to teach the conduct disorder child alternative responses at aggression so as to enable him to better handle said situations, judge the motives of others, understand the way others see him and the better understand the consequences of his own actions. Over the longer term it may lead to the development of new
friendships. These skills can be taught to the child by making use of modelling, games, academic activities as well as stories. Points and tokens are used as reinforces for desirable behaviour portrayed. A negative at these approaches are that they are not as effective in younger children as in older children due to the cognitive aspects which make a part of them.

Various studies however support the claims made that aggression and antisocial behaviour is reduced at school and at home. ( www.fordham.edu ) (Conduct Disorders & Antisocial Behaviour in Children and Young People: Recognition, Intervention and Management, 2012)

Functional Family Therapy

Functional family therapy is a therapeutic approach which incorporates aspects of systems, behavioural and cognitive approaches to therapy and which places the emphasis on the function various behaviours serve. A functional analysis which replaces diagnosis is conducted before the intervention is started. The emphasis is placed on the effect the behaviour of one family member has on the behaviour of another. This treatment approach seeks to increase the portraying of behaviours which are of benefit to all family members, to increase positive reinforcement among family members and to decrease coercive family processes. Few studies were done to determine the effectiveness at this approach. It was however found to be difficult to use this approach with children who are adjudicated delinquents and whom committed multiple offenses. It is however still more effective than various other approaches. ( www.fordham.edu ) (Conduct Disorders & Antisocial Behaviour in Children and Young People: Recognition, Intervention and Management, 2012)

Drug Approaches

Even though conduct disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders amongst children there is no licensed drug to treat this disorder. Various drugs which are used in the treating of other psychopathologies have been tested for their effectiveness in treating conduct disorder. From these drugs lithium is the most documented treatment and conventional neuroleptics the most common drug prescribed. Atypical neuroleptics appear to be a promising drug in treating conduct disorder. Little research has been done on the effect of antidepressants. Taking all the above into account one can conclude that there is insufficient evidence of an effective role to be played by drugs in the treatment of conduct disorder. (Gerardin, Cohen, Mazet, & Flament, 2002)

Challenges of treatment

Absent Parents

Based on personal experience I believe that one of the main challenges to treatment is the lack of treatment due to the fact that most parents work long hours and see little of their children and therefore know little about the behaviours their children exhibit to others. Such parents are also reluctant to react to any form of communication from their child’s school with regards to their child’s behaviour as they get home late and are tired. The challenge this holds is that such parents will not recognise the symptoms of conduct disorder and therefore treatment will not be started which will result in dire consequences for both the parents and the child.

Dropout

The dropout figures of families who dropout from the available interventions are extremely high and due to this a great challenge to helping is created as the helping process cannot be continued once a family refuses to come back to the therapist. Various factors contribute to the dropping out of families from the treatment. Factors may include time constraints, transportation difficulties and sometimes the parents are easily offended and dropout due to something said by the therapist. (Conduct Disorders & Antisocial Behaviour in Children and Young People: Recognition, Intervention and Management, 2012)

Institutions

It is sometimes necessary to place children whom are diagnosed with conduct disorder in institutions where trained professionals can administer the desired treatment. In South Africa the challenge is that there are no such facilities in existence and therefore there are no means of effectively treating conduct disorder within institutions. Due to this problem children are placed back into the care of their families and the chance that treatment will be completed is greatly minimised. (Conduct Disorders & Antisocial Behaviour in Children and Young People: Recognition, Intervention and Management, 2012) (Breen, 2011)

Lack of Drugs

A child presenting with conduct disorder portrays behaviours which are harmful to others as well as himself and a fast and effective way of reducing these behaviours are needed. By employing a form of counselling this will not be achieved and therefore there is a great need for a drug which can be given to the child along with counselling in order to minimise the risk of these behaviours. Thus the fourth challenge to treatment is the lack of a drug which can effectively reduce the symptoms and improve the child’s behaviour whilst counselling teaches the child suitable behaviours. (Gerardin, Cohen, Mazet, & Flament, 2002)

Legal implications

Conduct Disorder in an individual makes such an individual prone to the engaging in various behaviours which might have legal implications for them. Such individuals are prone to become involved in delinquency, to engage in violence as well as to abuse drugs and other substances and may become antisocial. (Foley, Carlton, & Howell, 1996) (Hughes, Crothers, & Jimerson, 2008) All of these activities can land such individuals into a heap of trouble with the law.

Delinquency

Conduct Disorder is the DSM diagnosis which is most commonly associated with delinquency (Foley, Carlton, & Howell, 1996) Delinquency can be said to involve behaviours engaged in by the individual which are seen as minor breakings of the law with the aim of causing harm to the other party or to the self (Gottfredson, 2001). Thus the first legal implication is that these who are diagnosed with the conduct disorder are prone to engage in criminal activities due to their inability to control their impulsivity.

Violence

The second legal implication to those who are diagnosed with Conduct Disorder is that they are more prone to engage in violent behaviours. (Foley, Carlton, & Howell, 1996) (Hughes, Crothers, & Jimerson, 2008). Therefore such individuals will be involved in fights and will therefore have many encounters with the law due to this.

Substance abuse

The third legal implication to those who are diagnosed with Conduct Disorder is that they are alone more likely to abuse drugs and other substances. (Foley, Carlton, & Howell, 1996) (Hughes, Crothers, & Jimerson, 2008). Substance abuse is against the law. The abusing of these substances will also greatly increase the risk of these individuals to persistently engage in delinquent behaviour and violence. (Hemphala & Hodgins, 2014)

Antisocial personality disorder

The fourth legal implication to those who are diagnosed with conduct disorder is that if conduct disorder is left untreated or ineffectively treated it may lead to the onset of antisocial personality disorder which is symptomatically very closely related to conduct disorder. (Foley, Carlton, & Howell, 1996) (Hughes, Crothers, & Jimerson, 2008) (Hemphala & Hodgins, 2014) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 1994) Therefore the future for individuals who are diagnosed with conduct disorder as a child is likely to be filled with run is with the law due their personality being bombastic and without any consideration for the safety and security of others.

Criminal capacity

A further legal implication is the question of criminal capacity. According to the Child Justice Act a child whom has not yet turned seven years of age is presumed to lack criminal capacity and thus cannot be held responsible any criminal activities participated in. between the ages of seven and fourteen years old the child is still seen as being criminally unaccountable, however the prosecution may seek to proof that the child can be held responsible and as the age of the child nears the age of fourteen it becomes easier to do so as at the age of fourteen a child is said to possess full criminal capacity. (South African Criminal Law and Procedure, 1970)

The assessment of one’s criminal capacity is dependent on the absence or presence of cognitive; which refers to his reason, intellect, insight, his ability to perceive, reason and remember; and conative; which refers to the ability the individual has in controlling his behaviour according to his insight; aspects. However a child whom suffers from conduct
disorder does not possess the needed cognitive mental function necessary to have criminal capacity due to significant developmental delays which brings about that the child’s chronological age is higher than the emotional age of the child. (Breen, 2011)

In conclusion. Conduct disorder is a mental disorder which affects society as a whole due to the negative behaviours engaged in by such a child. The early diagnoses of conduct disorder is vital as early interventions can lead to the disappearance of these unacceptable behaviours and allow the child to not only enjoy his childhood but also allow him the opportunity to lead a normal and healthy adult life. However there are numerous challenges which needs to be addressed in order to ensure that those who seek help continue to attend their sessions and great amounts of research needs to be done in order to develop a drug intervention which can assist in the treating of conduct disorder.

References

Breen, N. (2011, May). Between the cracks: How The State Fails to Provide for and Protect Children with a Debilitating form of Conduct Disorder.

Conduct Disorders & Antisocial Behaviour in Children and Young People: Recognition, Intervention andManagement. (2012). The British Psychological Society & The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). (1994). Washington: American PsychologicalAssociation.

Foley, H. A., Carlton, C. O., & Howell, R. J. (1996). The Relationship of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorderand Conduct Disorder to Juvenile Delinquency: Legal Implications. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law,XXIV(3).

Gerardin, P., Cohen, D., Mazet, P., & Flament, M. F. (2002). Drug Treatment of Conduct Disorder in Young People. European Neuropsychophamacol.

Gottfredson, D. C. (2001). Schools and Delinquency. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hemphala, M., & Hodgins, S. (2014). Do Psychopathic Traits Assessed in Mid-Adolescence Predict Mental Health,Psychosocial, and Antisocial, Including Criminal Outcomes, Over the Subsequent 5 Years. La Revue Canadienne Dee Psychiatrie, XXXXXIX(1).

Hughes, T. L., Crothers, L. M., & Jimerson, S. R. (2008). Developmental Psychopathology at School: Identifying, Assessing and Treating Conduct Disorder at School. Santa Barbara: Springer Science + Business Media.Inc.

South African Criminal Law and Procedure (Vol. I). (1970). Cape Town: Juta & Company Ltd.  www.fordham.edu . (n.d.). Retrieved from Psychosocial Treatments for Conduct Disorder in Children and

Adolescents:
http://www.fordham.edu
By Willie Trytsman 23 May, 2017
It is believed that parenting behaviours significantly influence the development of a child. Parenting behaviours are directly linked to the parenting style, thus different parenting styles will lead to different parenting behaviours which in turn will influence the child’s development. Parenting styles are made up of a combination of attitudes towards a child which is conveyed to the child and thus creates an emotional climate in which the behaviours of the parents are expressed. Parenting styles may be different from family to family due to the size of the family, the religion of the family, the coming together of parenting styles of two parents as well as parental background. Thus different parenting styles leads to the development of unique individuals, whether good or bad. (Janse van Rensburg, 2014) (Frick, Barry, & Kamphaus, 2009)

Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

Baumrind’s parenting styles were formulated using two elements which, according to research conducted by Baumrind and her colleagues, influence the parenting style. The first element is responsiveness or warmth and refers to the degree to which the parent is child-centred and shows warmth. The second element is supportiveness or demandingness and refers to parental control and the degree to which parents expect their child to exhibit maturity. The degree each element is presented by the parent was then used to formulate four parenting styles.
By Willie Trytsman 23 May, 2017
Education or also referred to as learning, teaching or schooling is a social institution which refers to the actions depicted by a teacher or educator by which a person, usually a child, is trained in the skills and values of the previous generations in which all the accumulated knowledge they gained is carried over to the learner (Wikipedia). Another definition or explanation for education is that it is a process of teaching, training and learning which generally takes place within schools and or colleges in order to improve knowledge and to develop skills (Dictionary) Therefore from these definitions for the institution of education we can conclude that the main aim or goal in education is to enable people to live a prosperous and good live (Brighouse, 2006:15).

The view on education is different for the different disciplines which study this institution. The discipline of Sociology is basically concerned with the role education as institution has on the management and maintenance of the society. (Joubert & Snyman 2011 :15)

As we concluded in the previous paragraphs, the aim of education is to help or enable people to become literate. To be literate in general means that a person is able to read and write which in pre-modern times was basically all that was needed to have a sustainable and prosperous live. As times changes various other aspects of humanity change as well, including education. One of the main reasons for the drastic and quick changes in education is the continuing development and improvement of information communication technologies or in short ICTs. Future funding also plays a huge role in the changing nature of education worldwide. (Giddens, 2006:870)

Before the mid 19’s the role of the church was not only to spiritually care for people but also to educate them. The church was unable to provide in the educational needs of everybody which had the effect that only a few people in positions such as priesthood or business owners were literate. (Joubert & Snyman 2011 :16) When the industrial era dawned the need for specialised skills emerged and this brought about the onset of mass education which was then the task of the government. Therefore the definition of mass education is the education that is provided for all the people within the country by the government.

The industrial era brought a great amount of change in the nature of education but the basic aim was still the same, to make people literate, but the extent to which a person should be literate was greatly enlarged. It is also noted that more recently more students are enrolling at higher education institutes which is evident that the need for specialised knowledge has yet again increased. (Joubert & Snyman 2011 :15-17)

With the onset of mass education the governments saw that there was a need for venues and institutions which were specifically designed and equipped to educate people. (Giddens, 2006:870) This onset was the driving force for the building of schools, from which we can now distinguish between pre-schools, primary schools, high schools, colleges and universities as well as various other educational institutions which specialise in different disciplines or skills. All of these educational ventures has the same basic curriculum and point of view.

Primary schools form the first part of the compulsory education a child must have and it lasts for roughly eight years. Primary schools admit children from around the ages of four to five and these children are firstly taught to read and write as well as the basics of mathematics so that they are literate. Once they are literate and can achieve all the required outcomes they are ready to go to high school or secondary school as it is called in some countries over the world. (Wikipedia)

High school or secondary school is usually characterised as the final stage of the compulsory education a child must undergo. During this stage of education the child which is now in his or her teens is prepared and refined in all the different fields which is presented in order for this student to be able to further his studies on the higher educational level which is non compulsory. (Wikipedia)

Higher education was and is the answer to the need for specialised skills needed by people in order to do certain jobs or complete certain tasks. Higher education refers to the education a person undergoes after he or she has finished school and is done by colleges, universities or other approved higher educational institutions. This form of education differs from society to society and is therefore not compulsory for all pupils to attend such an institute. It is however a given fact that in this day and age a person must have something more to show than just a normal high school education if he or she wants to have a good job with a steady and higher than average income. (Joubert & Snyman 2011 :16)

All of the above mentioned forms of education was the norm until various factors influenced them and forced these forms to be revised. Some examples include different religions, languages, needs and gender as well as the issue of class and level of education as all of the schools which was government funded had to comply to certain rules and regulations in order for them to keep their subsidies (Joubert & Snyman 2011 :16). Today we have not only public schools which still have a government subsidy but we also have privatised schools and educational institutions to cater for the specific needs of the people as well as various home-schooling ventures which are all used to a great extent.

Another phenomenon is that of the private educational sector which was created by the different needs and classes of societies. This is however more evident in the westernised countries but can be found all around the globe. This sector focuses on education which is paid in full by the student and or his parents as there are little or no state subsidies involved for this type of organisation. This has the effect that the schools only have to comply to certain curriculum requirements and have the opportunity to practice only one religion or admit only one gender, which ever might be the case. (Joubert & Snyman 2011 :17)

It must also be mentioned that these private institutions pride themselves in providing the best service and highest level of education such as is the case with Yale university as well as Harvard in the United States of America, as this is the trend it is clear that these forms of educational institutes employ more staff, use higher quality materials and spend more on research in order to be at the forefront in the disciplines which they teach in. This yields the result that they spend large amounts of money in order to meet their goals. This money can be gained from research subsidies granted to them by the government or it can all come from the students and or their parents (Altbach & Engberg, 2001:1).

Due to the fact that we find ourselves in an era where technological knowhow and computer literacy is a requirement for most job positions it is vital that the different phases and institutions of education addresses this need in order to effectively provide the community with the best possible electronic education in order to ensure the technological literacy and competence of their students. (Joubert & Snyman 2011 :17)

Together with the privatisation of educational institutes came the electronic educational institutes which addressed the need of technological literacy and provided the students with the opportunity to not only study their desired discipline but to also help them to become more computer and technological literate by making use of various forms of technology in order to complete the degree or course they enrolled for. Various forms of electronic educational mediums can be distinguished, some of them include online forms and others are presented using DVDs or CDs in order to convey the required knowledge. The electronic form of education is also available for all the different stages and phases in education and they range from pre-primary and primary institutes to higher educational institutes.

From the above paragraphs it is clear that education changed drastically all over the world in order to adapt to the various new trends, fads and fashions of our ever changing environment. Today education is seen as one of the most crucial and basic human rights people must have by most of the countries around the world due to its importance to ensure growth and development. (Joubert & Snyman 2011 :16) The openness to change within the education sector is vital as this will ensure that they will be able to provide in the needs and demands of the students and the companies and individuals which will make use of their specialised skills acquired through the institute of education.

We have seen how education has adapted to suit the needs of people and provide in their quest for more answers and knowledge and this could not have been achieved if people and the education sector was unwilling to change. The most influencing factor of the changes in education is however the different societies and their ever changing needs. The changing nature of education globally has many advantages as well as disadvantages. But these changes are vital for the continued development and growth of the education industry and must the disadvantages be dealt with in order to streamline education for all.
By Willie Trytsman 23 May, 2017
Institutions or otherwise known as social institutions can be defined as the social activities of a society which involves the values and norms to which the members of the society must comply. These values and norms are protected by various penalties which can be designated to a person whom goes against these values and norms. These values and norms as depicted and illustrated by the institutions lay the foundation for the society as they represent the age old accepted societal behaviour of the given society. (Joubert & Snyman 2011, 2011:8)

We can come to the conclusion that not any one single institution is able to function alone and therefore we encounter many different institutions such as the family, education and religious institutions which all have a vital role they play. The necessity of social institutions is the fact that they contribute to the overall flow between the generations of the society. (Joubert & Snyman 2011, 2011:8)

The institution of the family and marriage is currently under the spotlight due to the important function or role it has as institution in the society. As we know, the family plays an important role in the socialisation and the development of children and therefore also in the healthy and sustainable development of society. Due to all the drastic changes and deviations from the traditional norm which occurred over time and is drastically gaining speed within this institution brought the need to investigate this institution in order to determine the effects all of these changes and deviations may or may not have on the family, marriage and society. (Corbett, 2004:1)

The term family refers to a group or company of people whom have a biological linkage which is best described as the mother, father and their children. However this is not true to all families as some couples are unable to have children of their own and they therefore adopt children which replaces the biological link with a legal link. (Corbett, 2004:vi)

We can furthermore distinguish between two different types of families. The first type is the nuclear family which is the normal traditional family consisting of the parents and their children. (Corbett, 2004:2) The second type refers to the broader family which consists of the kin’s which are the cousins, aunts, uncles and so forth. (Corbett, 2004:vi)

As mentioned earlier, the family has gone through various different phases and stages in order to be where it is today. Some of these phases and stages were good whereas others, or most, are bad for the family in general. Different aspects of the family was and is affected by the development of the family. Some aspects includes a change in values, form and structure of the family.

When we look at the biblical guide for a family it is evident that the Old Testament allowed for a form of marriage which is know as polygamy to take place. The basic definition for polygamy is when a person is married to more than one spouse at any particular time of his life. We can distinguish between two different forms of polygamy, the first and the most common form is that of polygyny which refers to a man being married to more than one women and the second form is that of polyandry which refers to a women being married to more than one man; this however is very unlikely to occur. (Zeitzen, 2008 :3)

Due to the fact that the practice of polygamy contributed to sexual sin and lust it was later banned. We read in the New Testament that Christ said that a man should love his own wife, and not own wives. Thus it is clear that this practice is no longer accepted by God. This opened the door and paved the way for the traditional style of marriage and family to emerge. This style is also referred to as the nuclear family. As humans who were born into the sinful world we go tend to go against the traditional or biblical style of marriage and introduced different styles in order to fulfil the need of all peoples. The traditional style is now replaced by homosexual partnerships, cohabitation and polygamy, not very common, to name a few.

Homosexual partnerships are an ever increasing sight all over the world and is a topic of discussion in all sociological and political spheres due to the power it has to influence so many spheres of the society. Homosexual partnerships are also known as same sex marriages, unions or relationships and refer to a romantic relationship between two people of the same sex. This type of relationship is highly discredited by most of the community and marrying a person from the same sex is against the law in most countries and therefore gay couples live together outside marriage. This drastic change in sexual orientation has a major influence on the changing family values within communities. However gay couples are allowed to adopt children if they don’t have any children of their own, this is a point of concern as their children will learned that same sex partnerships are acceptable. (Newman & Grauerholz, 2002:14)

Cohabitation is yet another issue or form of family which was left to go on as it pleases and is acceptable by society as substitute for marriage. Cohabitation refers to a romantically involved couple living together as if they are married. (Joubert & Snyman 2011 ,2011:10) People choose cohabitation because they are afraid of marriage, because they see it as a step in the process of marriage or simply as an alternative for marriage or living alone. (Thornton, Axinn & Xie, 2007:5)

This type of family might have the same structure as a traditional family but is a form immorality. This form of family opens the door for a total crash of family and general values due to the fact that this allows for sex outside of marriage which is a point of concern due to the high rates of sexually transmitted diseases. This also opens the door for the partners to get out at any point of time without any hassle, this again leads to single parenting or the absent farther syndrome which are both part of the growing diversity of family forms and structures.

Lone-parent or single-parent households refers to a household where only one parent is present and or involved in the raising of the child. The cause or causes for this type of family structure with all of its stigmas and problems is mostly attributed to the ever increasing divorce rates, other “bad” reasons which cause much pain to members of this group include cohabitation that went bad, sex outside the walls of marriage. People are classified into the sinful category due
to the fact that they might have had sex outside the marriage, this is also the primary cause for single-parent households. (Dowd, 1999:xii) It must also be noted that these mentioned possible causes or contributing factors are not the only ones, death of a partner, the absence of a partner due to work or other factors or rape are also possible causes for this family structure, but is less known of.

This type of family has many challenges which it must face which may contribute to the decline in family values. Some of these problems may include a lack of discipline due to the fact that the primary parent might be afraid to implement punishment and reward systems out of fear of rejection and rebellion. This along with the possible cause of this situation in which they find themselves will determine the character of the child and may influence his or her sexual orientation due to the lack of a father or mother figure, his chance of success as well as what he or she does with the opportunities they have.

Remarriage and reconstructed families are mostly made up of people from lone-parent households due to the fact that parents of such households are attracted to each other and they need someone to help and support them in raising their children. This type of family refers to a family made up of a mother and father of which one of them or even both have children from previous relationships which they bring into this new family. (Joubert & Snyman 2011 :10)

The effect this change in structure may bring is harsh in most cases as the bond that existed between the single-parents and their children is now weaker due to the new love relationship that was made with the new spouse as well as his or her children. This will inevitably result in conflict within the family as feelings of rejection or favouritism will be present. (Newman, 2008:210) Research also shown that this type of family is more likely to end in divorce due to the higher levels of conflict than first marriages. (Joubert & Snyman 2011 :10)

A commonality between most of the discussed types and structures of families is divorce. The higher rate of divorce all over the world undoubtedly play the biggest role in the changing demographics of the family and marriage. This is a privilege man has created for his own benefit and is now slowly but surely catching up with him and destroys lives and families along the way. The trauma and loss of values caused by divorce play a huge role in the society and is the most likely cause of all the problems and challenges which we uncover and discover within the sphere of family and marriage.

Family values have been challenged by humanistic values and open attitudes towards sexuality and divorce. The traditional family was made out as something which locks people in and disregards their human rights. And an outcry by advocates of family values was made even though they knew that the battle against humanistic liberals will make it almost impossible for their cry to be heard by the world. (Joubert & Snyman 2011 2011:11)

When we consider family values we think of things such as honesty, trustworthiness, faithfulness, obedience and self-control to name a few. All of these values and more is learned to members of the family by the process of socialisation. However in this day and age a Biblical  principal know as spanking was removed from families by the law in order to prevent the beating of children. This is a good thing if it is applied correctly, however parents now are the ones who listen and the kids the ones who speak as the kids have more rights than their parents and this law is the way of imprinting discipline into children.

When I listen to the values my parents have had in their families and compare them to the values we have in our family it is quite clear that there are some differences but the basics remained the same. However if I compare the values of our family to those of other families within our society I notice that they vastly differ. This might be because of different cultures, religions or views or due to the total destruction of morals, norms and values. The call is made that the traditional family must be reinstated in its rightful place in order to bring back the balance in society and help combat things such as violence, gangsterism and various substance abuses.

Family values are at the centre of the institution of family and marriage and it is because of the fact that family values are becoming more and more outdated and no longer seen to have any use or value to us we become faced with the problems and deviations as discussed in this response. All of these problems has the potential to bring about a major change in how we as people see marriage, family and relationships as the image we as people created by our lack of interest to sustain good family values will vastly differ from the image which God has intended.

From what we have seen and uncovered it is quite clear that the changes present in the family and marriage structure, form and values may be behind the lack of discipline, respect, control and values of the youth and young people of today. They are deprived from the privileges and positives of a good and stable family environment. Urgent attention must be given and information must be made more readily and easily available to inform and educate people and especially the new generation whom is about to enter the institute of family and marriage so that they can be on the lookout for the dangers and warnings so they can help bring back the balance and traditional family structure, values and form. 
By Willie Trytsman 23 May, 2017
The term Conduct Disorder is the diagnostic categorisation used to refer to children whom presents with a pervasive and persistent pattern of behaviours such as aggression, destruction, deceitfulness and the violation of rules, which are problematic. These children diagnosed with Conduct Disorder experiences higher levels of distress and impairment in all developmental areas as opposed to children whom are diagnosed with other mental health disorders. The early diagnoses of conduct disorder is vital as it can be an indication that the individual will engage in criminal behaviours and be socially maladjusted by the time they become adults, it is also one of the most common reasons for referring children and adolescents for psychological and psychiatric help. (Hughes, Crothers, & Jimerson, 2008)

Conduct Disorder falls under the category of disorders which are usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence in the DSM-IV. The diagnostic criteria, or symptoms, of conduct disorder according to the DSM-IV is the repetitive and persistent occurrence of behaviour which violates the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate social rules or norms. The said behaviours can be classified as aggressive conduct that can cause or threaten the physical integrity of other humans or animals, non-aggressive behaviour but which can cause damage or loss to property, behaviours which are deceitful or which involves stealing and behaviour which seriously violates rules. In order to make the diagnosis of conduct disorder all of the above mentioned behaviours need to be presented during last year with at least one being present the last six months and the disturbance in behaviour cause clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 1994)

The treating of conduct disorder is a very complex matter as there are more than five hundred and fifty different types of treatment utilised in conduct disorder interventions in children and adolescents. Various approaches to the treating of conduct disorder has been found to be ineffective. The treatments found to be ineffective includes variations of psychodynamic therapies, play therapy as well as relationship-based treatment approaches and group therapy as in hospital and residential settings. The reality is that the treatments which are empirically supported, such as more comprehensive treatments, are the least likely to be utilised and are also generally unavailable. ( www.fordham.edu )
By Willie Trytsman 23 May, 2017
It is a well known fact that violence brings about violence as seen in so many instances. During the last few decades a correlation or link between animal abuse and violent behaviour has been observed. (Joubert, Rostoll, Esterhuizen & 
Coetzee, 2012:13) This has been proven by various studies conducted and found that this link is so immense that profilers make use of reports on animal cruelty when assessing the threat a criminal poses for the society. (No Boundaries For Abusers)

The cause of violent behaviour towards animals is ascribed to exposure to animal abuse by someone older such as a parent. Youths exposed to high instances of parental abuse is more likely to engage in animal abuse than those who is not exposed to parental violence. Thus we can say that due to animal abuse by significant other a toleration for violence is learned (Blazina, Boyraz, Shen-Miller, 2011:252), and this rarely stops ends at animal abuse (The Animal Abuse-Human
Violence Connection).

The reason why it rarely stops at animal abuse is due to the fact there is common characteristics shared between animals and humans. These characteristics are that both animals and humans are living organisms that are both able to
experience distress and feel pain, that both are able to physically show the signs of the distress and pain experienced as well as that both can die from the injuries inflicted to them. (Joubert, Rostoll, Esterhuizen & Coetzee, 2012:13)

Animal cruelty by youths is motivated by various factors, these factors include the abusing of animals as part of a youth gang initiation, for sexual gratification or being forced by an adult or other figure of authority to do so (Ascione & Arkow,
1999:55), another motivation is that animal cruelty is a rehearsal for interpersonal violence and provides a sort of practice scenario for the youth offender to practice and perfect his means of violence before attacking a human, animal cruelty may also be an attempt of a victim of abuse to regain a sense of power by abusing a helpless and vulnerable animal (Ascione, 2010:226)

There are various motives for youths to engage in animal cruelty, these motives are referred to as typology. Pathological animal abuse is symptomatic of psychological disturbances which may vary in degree and may also be due to various forms of abuse such as sexual and physical abuse. Delinquent animal abuse is said to be a type of antisocial behaviour and it states that animal abuse may form part of a gang or cult ritual or tradition such as initiations or sacrifices.
(Ascione, 2005:144)

Due to the fact that a correlation has been seen with regard to animal cruelty and violence later in life various studies have been conducted in order to determine the extent to which animal abuse really affect the tendency a person has to engage in violent behaviour later in life. These studies has found that animal abuse as form of fun but not limited to fun is a predictor for later interpersonal violence. It was also founded that the covering up of childhood animal abuse resulted in repeated acts ad convictions of interpersonal behaviour by those who abused animals during their childhood. Even though these findings show a clear correlation between animal abuse and a tendency to engage in violent behaviour later in life it must also be kept in mind that animal abuse is not the sole cause but certainly a major cause of violent behaviour. (Levesque, 2011:135)

Thus it is clear that cruelty to animals does not only affect animals but it also affects humans and those who abuse these animals. This is due to the fact that animal cruelty sets the stage for violent behaviour and awakens an urge within the individual to become more and more violent. It is said that it is extremely harmful and detrimental for a young child, or any child for the fact of the matter, whom has killed, harmed or tortured an animal to be left unaddressed or unpunished (Merz-Perez & Heide, 2004:159), as ignoring this type of behaviour brings about the understanding that cruel and violent actions such as this is acceptable to engage in (Muscari & Brown, 2010:266)
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